Historian

Écija

prehistoric/ pre-roman

This town’s foundation is placed ca the VIIIth BC, within Tartessian civilization, Until Roman conquer.
200 BC, it was probably a small Turdetano village of huts located on the slight rise next to the Genil river, nowadays known as Alcazar or San Gil.

Romans

The town had its highest splendour period under Roman rule.
it took part in favour of Julius Caesar during the Civil Wars against Pompey. ( 14 BC )

Muslims

During the Islamic rule, Istiŷa (or Astiŷa) was the province capital during the caliphate and emirate periods.
Muslim people introduced water crops, including the cotton crop, which gave Ecija the nickname of Madînat al-qutn (“the town of cotton”)

Chistian Conquest

On May 1240 Ecija was conquered by Fernando III and distributed among new Castilian settlers, including many noblemen, military orders and the Church.
Started to a large extent from this feudal distribution of land and its development along the Modern period.

Modern Age

During the whole XVIIIth century, considered the “Ecijan Golden Century”, the town underwent splendorous civil and religious buildings linked to the concentration of ecclesiastical and aristocratic properties and power, ( there were in the town 40 nobility titles, 13 of them Grandees of Spain)
Ecija’s historic centre preserves one of the best Baroque architectural and artistic legacies of Andalusia and probably of all the Iberian Peninsula.

Contemporary Age

In 1402 Enrique III awarded the title of “town” to Ecija.
Carlos I added the title of “Muy leal” (Very Loyal) to the one of “Muy noble” (Very Noble) held previously by the town.
Felipe V awards the appointment as “Constante, leal y fidelísima” (Constant, Loyal and Very Faithful) in 1710.
In 1880 Alfonso XII awards the town Council the address of “Excelentísimo”.
in the XXth century, Ecija receives in 1966 a new title (Site of Historical and Artistic Interest)

NAME

LOCATION

ORIGIN

TYPOLOGY

STYLE

DESCRIPTION

el carmen church
ecija
It dates back to the first quarter of the 15th century
Religious architecture


saint John's church
ecija
16th-18th
Religious architecture




Holy cross high parish

ecija


1778 y 1836

Religious architecture
neoclassic
During the Muslim period, between the VIIIth and the XIIIth centuries one of Ecija’s Mosques was located here; the present tower was built on the former minaret.After Christian Conquest, in 1240, a new Mudejar church building was started; nowadays from this temple an arch with plaster decoration is preserved at the North churchyard.After 1755’s earthquake, the building of a new church in neoclassic style is approved. It was built between 1778 and 1836, and it remained unfinished because of financial problems.

Saint florentina's

ecija
17th-18th


Saint Florentina Convent is thought to be the oldest of Ecija and is one of the first to be established in Andalusia within their Order (Dominican Sisters).
The primitive workshop could have been a Mudejar style building, but today the Baroque rooms and buildings prevail.


Palacio de justicia (lawcourts)

ecija



This building is popularly known as Las Tomasas Palace (Palacio de las Tomasas, Tomasa is the Spanish femenine form of Thomas) because it belonged to two Ecijan sisters with such nickname.
It shows an exuberant “historicist” decoration based on Alhambra’s decoration –a place that moved the sisters- and it is one of the most admired places by visitors and foreigners.
At the hallway we see a Triana-tiled baseboard.
The coffered ceilings, the main patio and the stairs are also remarkable.

ESTEPA

Prehistoric/Pre-Roman


Romans

208 BCE Roman invaders found that the entire population of what was then a small but important outpost of Carthage had torched their homes and killed themselves rather than be overrun by the Romans.
The Romans re-populated the town from their settlements elsewhere in the region and called it Ostipo.

Muslims

In the eighth century, the Moorish armies who had invaded the south-western tip of the region in 711 CE took the town and renamed it Istabba. The Arabs renovated an abandoned pre-Roman castle at the top of the San Cristobal hill on which the town sits, and began fortifying it against the incursions during the Reconquest. Shifts in power between various caliphates saw it fall under the control of various caliphs, including the kingdoms of both Granada and Sevilla. The renowned poet Al Zawwali lived here before returning to Marrakech in 1220 shortly before his death.

Christian Conquest

Estepa, as it would be rechristened, was taken quite early in the Reconquest, by King Fernando III, 'The Saint', in 1241, but was the subject of regular attacks from Granada, which would not fall to the Christians until 1492.

Modern Age


Contemporary Age

19th century, the consequences of successive wars and economic downturn transformed Estepa into a haven for the bandits, who haunted the mountains and often made outrageous forays into the towns and villages ( in was "El Tempranillo" )
In 1886, queen Maria Cristina honoured the town with the title of City by Royal Disposition, a sign of its status in the region.

NAME

LOCATION

ORIGIN

TYPOLOGY

STYLE

DESCRIPTION

the city wall

estepa
10th century

Islamic
The city walls that were first built in the 10th century by the Moors.
its 26 meters high are magnificent views of the countryside and the city
The tower is 22m high and topped by an impressive belfry and spire.

convent of santa clara

estepa


baroque
Behind the church of Santa Maria is the Baroque convent of Santa Clara, built by two of the local marqueses and the Franciscans.. The opulent interior features a single nave with barrelled vault supported by arches,dome above scalloped details over the altar. The altar itself was built by Pedro Ruiz de Paniagua, funded by monies owed the marqueses by King Charles V.

Palacio de los Marqueses de Cerverales

estepa
18th century

Baroque
Completed in 1756 by the first Marquis of Cerverales, Manuel Bejarano y Campañón, it boasts a handsome Baroque façade with spiral Solomon columns, and in the interior a typical open courtyard.

The central Plaza El Carmen

estepa
18th


The central Plaza El Carmen was as the name suggests built in honour of the Virgin Carmen. It was expanded in 1745 to accommodate a bullring. Spain's shifting political fortunes have seen it baptised with various names over the centuries: Constitution Square, Royal Square, Republic Square, Square among them. It's more commonly known to townsfolk as 'el salón', 'the lounge', and the place where many of them congregate under the shade of its trees and in the cool from its central fountain.





OSUNA


Prehistoric/pre-roman

Its historical origin can be located around 1,000 BC According to Pliny, Strabo and Ptolemy. Osuna is of Iberian origin. Given its walls Viriato defeated the Romans, led by Quintus Octavius Maximus. It was conquered by Caesar. From this stage are preserved abundant traces, some in the Archaeological Museum of the Villa, and others, such as legal inscriptions known as' bronze Osuna'

Romans


Muslims


Christian Conquest

It was conquered in 1239 by the Christian King Fernando III, moving in 1264 to be assigned more of the Order of Calatrava, which was titled Waiter 'Commander of Osuna. "

Modern Age

in 1596, Don Juan Tellez Giron, fourth Conde de Ureña, the town reached its heyday, and Philip II in 1562 granted him the title of Duke of Osuna. The life of the village was led by the paternalistic influence 'the ducal house', some of whose members, like Don Juan Tellez, embellished with magnificent buildings, such as the 'University' and the College, 'The Collegiate', for which classrooms became great figures of our literatureexternal image cleardot.gif

Contemporary Age



NAME

LOCATION

ORIGIN

TYPOLOGY

STYLE

DESCRIPTION

Old Palace Cepeda
osuna



Nineteenth century building which belonged to the Cepeda family, whose most prominent member, St. Teresa of Jesus, appears in a polychrome relief on the front door.

Ermita de San Arcadio

osuna
century
17th


Chapel in which worship the patron of the city, San Arcadio, XVII century figure.
Church of Our Lady of Consolation
osuna
century
16th
Religious architecture

Original construction of the sixteenth century, and renovated during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Formerly Franciscan convent in the same venerated image of Our Lady of Consolation, patron saint of Osuna.external image cleardot.gif
Church and Tower of Mercy
osuna
century
17th
Religious architecture

XVII century building in which stands the magnificent facade of the church and the marble floors of Genoa.
Church of the Holy Spirit Conventexternal image cleardot.gif
osuna

Religious architecture

One of the most beautiful monasteries Osuna, was founded to collect foundlings. Highlights include a superb collection of doors and frames that highlight Rococo art. Currently, the convent is run by the Sisters of the Cross.


CARMONA

Prehistoric/ Pre-roman

The fertility of the land and its privileged geographical position at the top of the head of a defense made easy Carmona was populated from 'prehistoric times"

Romans

In the year 206 BC C., Carmona was conquered by the Roman Empire, was intensely Romanized and became one of the most important urban centers of Andalusia, with the name 'Carmen'.

Muslims

Its importance did not decrease in the Muslim period, and became the capital of one of the Taifa kingdoms in the eleventh century. The Arabs reformed the defensive system and embellished with noble palaces, mosques and other important buildings, of which there are still remains.

Christian Conquest

The conquest was the work of Fernando III 'the Saint', in 1247, starting with recruitment. Its boundaries of the territory by Alfonso X the Wise In the fifteenth century, struggles between the political parties strongly hit the city.

Modern Age

In 1630, Philip IV granted the 'title of city. "

Contemporary Age



NAME

LOCATION

ORIGIN

TYPOLOGY

STYLE

DESCRIPTION

neclopolis romana
carmona
Century 1st and 2ndexternal image cleardot.gif
burial grounds

Outside the walls, as was customary in Roman cities, and near the road that connected Hispalis Carmo (Carmona / Seville), it retains a considerable sector of the Roman Necropolis own testimony along with other activity of a poor urban areas: the extraction of quarry stones for construction, pottery and the amphitheater dedicated to public entertainment.
Church of the Saviour.
carmona
17th-18th
Religious architecture

He belonged to the Jesuits. It contains images and goldsmith of the XVII and XVIII.
alcazar de la puerta de sevilla
carmona
century 8th a.C.


The Carthaginians built a stronghold on the original tower, giving square appearance. But it was in Roman times when the defense complex began to take the first strokes of the current appearance.
These measures, together with those who carried out the rest of the city, Carmona made the safest and strongest of Andalusia during antiquity.

MARCHENA



Prehistoric/Pre-Roman

Bronze Age, highlighting the 'deposit Montemolín'

Romans

The Roman settlement, several are the possible names of the people, 'Castra' 'Genuine', 'Alpe' and 'Cologne Marcia' in honor of Marciana, sister of Trajan.

Muslims

Its current name comes from that adopted during the Muslim invasion, 'Marssen-ah. "

Christian Conquest

The city was conquered by Ferdinand III in 1240, who gave it to Pedro Ponce de Minerva, whose son Fernando obtained by donation of Fernando IV the lordship of the town.

Modern Age

In the XV and XVI centuries the city grew strongly, the hand of the Duke of Arcos.

Contemporary Age

In the nineteenth century after the abolition of the feudal, Marchena be separated from Arcos.
In 1812, after the abolition of the feudal system by the Constitution, Marchena acquires its peak, which manifests itself in its beautiful architectural constructions eminently religious.


NAME

LOCATION

ORIGIN

TYPOLOGY

STYLE

DESCRIPTION

Puerta de Sevilla (Arco de la Rosa)

Marchena



It is a gate in receivership and meets all the requirements recommended key Vitrubio.Sobre arch appears the emblem of the family 'Colonna' crowning the ducal coat.
This gate, also called ARCO DE LA ROSA is one of the most emblematic monuments Marchena.

Elizabeth Church

marchena
1566
century
16th
Religious architecture
Renaissance
The works of this church began to 1566, finished twenty years later. The church, no religion, contains many works of art, we highlight the main altarpiece in the Renaissance style, where you can admire magnificent Roelas five tables. The convent near the church has a beautiful carving that represents one of Alonso Cano Immaculate dated between 1656 and 1660, and an 'Ecce Homo' by Juan de Juanes. A sundial on the outside of one wall is preserved from the building.

Church and Convent of San Agustín

marchena
17th

Baroque to neoclassical
The exterior shows a beautiful monument to the Sacred Heart of Jesus Inside, highlights the reliefs on the walls of the Moorish-style buildings themed e incluencias of post-Columbian Aztec and Inca cultures.

Puerta de Morón

marchena



The entrance is through a pointed horseshoe arch, built of masonry, which defines a recess alfiz airy.
Currently this building houses inside the MUSEUM OF Coullaut VALERA by one of its doors and the other gives way to the tourist office.
external image cleardot.gif

ALCALÁ DE GUADAÍRA

Prehistoric/Pre-Roman

In prehistoric dolmens El Gandul is the Chalcolithic period.

Romans

Their origin is Turdetano the Greeks and Romans called Ordo Hiemipa Hienipense, dating from this time his Guadaíra River bridge.

Muslims

At the time had a flourishing Arab calling himself the 'Al Wad Aira Kalat' (The Castle of Aira River).

Christian Conquest

On the occasion of the struggles between the houses of Medina-Sidonia and Marqués de la Mina was modified and restored, being conquered in 1244. It is of irregular shape, about two yards, and is crossed by 11 towers. On 21 September 1248 was presented by King Alamar Aben Granada to Ferdinand III, who gave the town's official seal. In 1253 with a distribution of Alfonso X Seville became part of corresponding to its people the same privileges that the people of Seville. He served prison Calatrava Don Diego Garcia (Maestre de Calatrava), the Archbishop of Braga, Don Juan Cardella and the Duke of Osuna III, Don Pedro Giron, among others. Until 1444 it was owned by the Count of Arcos, when he went to the dominions of the Count of Niebla. In 1477 he acquired the property of the Crown category.

Modern Age


Contemporary Age



NAME

LOCATION

ORIGIN

TYPOLOGY

STYLE

DESCRIPTION

Puente de Carlos III

ALCALA DE
GUADAIRA
18th


On the river Guadaíra in the urban area of the city. Built of stone, of Roman origin, consists of seven arches. Turning Point in the Camino Real to the ports of Cadiz, was transformed in the XVIII century, during King Carlos III.

Castillo de Marchenilla

ALCALA DE GUADAIRA
14th


XIV century castle, is one of the best preserved in the province. Highlights include a large walled courtyard and keep.

Castillo de Alcalá de Guadaíra

ALCALA DE GUADAIRA



Castle of Muslim origin, is flanked by eleven towers, forming two enclosures. Its wall is crowned with battlements and arrow slits provided. Figures such as the Catholic Monarchs and Charles V stayed at the castle in one of his visits.external image cleardot.gif

Molinos del Guadaíra

ALCALA DE GUADAIRA



Islamic and late medieval era, Alcala flour mills are located mainly along the riverbed Guadaíra. At present, preserved fifteen: Four on the shore of the river, three in the area and eight in Gandul area Marchenilla.


SEVILLA

Prehistoric/Pre-Roman

The Legends tells that Seville was founded by Hercules. But the Seville area flourished during the Tharsis reign. The Phoenicians and Greeks maintained commercial relations with Tharsis. During the 8th century BC, their descendants created a city on the shores of the Guadalquivir and named it Ispal. It would be later called Hispalis.

Romans

From the 3rd century BC, the Carthaginians occupied the area but they were defeated by the Roman,206 BC. From then on, Seville entered into an age of splendor. This was even truer when Julius Caesar gave Seville the status of colony in 45 BC.
During that period, various invasions took place, particularly Vandals and Visigoths. The latter dominated Seville during the 6th and 7th centuries.

Muslims

In 712 started the domination of the Arabs over Sevilla, that they called at that time Isbiliah. Those two names are the origin of the current names of Seville and Guadalquivir river. Under the Arab ruling, Seville entered into another age of splendor. When the Almohades arrived in 1147, they transferred the center of the power from Cordoba to Seville and made it their capital. From this last period of the Arab-Andalusian domination remain the Giralda, the Torre del Oro, the Alcazar and the Macarena wall

Christian Conquest

In 1248, Ferdinand III The Saint conquested Seville for Christianity. Muslims were forced to leave whereas Mudejars and Hebrews stayed.
A lot of churches were built to replace the mosques. Ferdinand III transferred the Kingdom of Castile Court to the Alcazar of Seville. He stayed there until he died in 1252 and is considered as Seville’s patron saint.
Ferdinand III’s son, Alfonso X, continued his father’s work. He established a tolerant reign which enabled the Jewish, Arab and Christian’s knowledge to boom.
Under Peter I of Castile (1350-69), the city grew in an extraordinary way.
In 1401, the Gothic-style Cathedral was built over the Big Mosque. However the Giralda as well as the patio de los naranjos (Orange trees courtyard) were kept.

Modern Age

In 1492 Christopher Columbus discovered America. From then on, Seville experienced its apogee.
In 1519, Carlos I of Spain (Carlos V of Germany) became emperor.
The territory of the city expanded end of 15th century. Three famous painters actually were born in Seville at that time: Velazquez (1599), Murillo (1617) and Valdes Leal (1622).
Nonetheless, the 17th century saw the decline of Seville. After a plague epidemic in 1649 divided the population by two, the Guadalquivir got stuck in 1680.Seville however kept its monopoly on tobacco and a huge plant was built to this end.

Contemporary Age

After the Independence war and another plague epidemic in the 19th century, Seville experienced another period of prosperity under Queen Elisabeth, who implemented urban reforms, in particular the construction of the Elisabeth II bridge and the collapse of the wall around the city
During the 20th century, Seville hosted two expositions that modified its landscapes. In 1929, Seville welcome the Latin-American exposition, the aim of which was to strengthen the Andalusian economy.

NAME

LOCATION

ORIGIN

TYPOLOGY

STYLE

DESCRIPTION

alcazar

sevilla
14th century
palace
mudejar
The Christian monarchs, Alfonso X and Pedro I employed Moorish craftsmen to build the Real Alcazar of Seville in the 14th century. The Palace of Pedro I is considered to be the most complete example of this so-called Mudéjar architecture in Spain. However, a few remains still lie from the former Islamic palace, Patio del Yeso, from before the Christian Reconquest.

casa pilatos

sevilla
16th century
civil architecture
Italian Renaissance and Spanish Mudéjar
The Casa de Pilatos is located next to the Plaza de Pilatos. The building is mainly from the 16th century and a mixture of Italian Renaissance and Spanish Mudéjar style. It is regarded as a "prototype" of an Andalusian palace.
Once the owner of the building, the Marquis of Tarifa, came back he made some reforms on his palace. Since then, the building was called the "House of Pilate".

cathedral & giralda

sevilla
cathedral:15th and 16th

giralda: 12th
Religious architecture
cathedral:Gothic

giralda:Islamic
The Cathedral of Seville was built in the 15th and 16th century in Gothic style on the grounds of the former major Arab mosque. It is the largest place of worship in Spain, and the third largest cathedral in the Christian world.
the Giralda tower was the minaret of the 12th century Moslem mosque. Its Christian bell fry was added by Hernán Ruiz in 1568. From there you can oversee large parts of Seville

plaza de españa

sevilla
19th-20th century
civil architecture

Major parts of the grounds of María Luisa park were donated in 1893 to the city of Seville by the Dutchess of Montpensier to be used as a public park.
In 1914, the Spanish architect Aníbal Gonzalez started with the construction works for the Ibero-American Exposition of 1929, which partly took place inside María Luisa park.
The semicircular square of the Plaza de España has an artificial lake in its center and is flanked by two towers. The building's style today is called Sevillian Regionalism.

golden tower

sevilla
13th century
military
architecture
islamic
The Golden Tower of Seville was built in the early 13th century by the Almohades. The building was of military purpose and was located outside the walled defences. It was used to control the entrance of Seville's harbour by means of an iron chain, which spanned to the other shore of the river.
Probably a cover of golden tiles gave it the name of Golden Tower.

town hall

sevilla
16th century
civil
architecture
Renaissance
The Town Hall of Seville was built in the 16th century in Renaissance style on the remains of the former San Francisco monastery. The construction works were started by architect Diego de Riaño in 1527, who at the same time also added new parts to the Cathedral of Seville.

Salvador church

sevilla
17th-18th
Religious architecture
Baroque
Is the second largest church of Seville after the Cathedral. Construction works begun in 1674 and finished in 1712 . It was based on the remains of the Mezquita Mayor, which was then the main mosque of Seville.
The Interior is in Sevillian Baroque style and richly decorated with sculptures and paintings of local artists:
- retablo mayor from 1770-1779 by Cayetano de Acosta
- painting of S. Cristóbal by Martínez Montañés from 1597
- sculpture of Cristo del Amor by Juan de Mesa from around 1618-1620
- sculpture of Jesús de la Pasión by Martínez Montañés from 1610-1615

Santa Ana church

sevilla
13th century
Religious architecture
cisterciense-gothic
Triana's Santa Ana church is the oldest parish church in Seville, dating back to the 13th century. Alfonso X ordered the beginning of the construction works in 1276. They were finished in the beginning of the 14th century. It is in cisterciense-gothic style atlthough the construction material brick gives a mudéjar touch. Santa Ana church suffered various reforms, the most important one after the earthquake of Lisbon in 1755.

Triana bridge

sevilla
1847-1852
civil architecture

Isabel II bridge of Seville was built in 1847-1852 by the French engineers Bernadet and Steinacher, to replace the former boat bridge of 1171. It is a fine example of 19th-century iron architecture.
Having crossed the bridge, you have a nice view on the City Center of Seville on the other side of the Río Guadalquivir.
Isabel II bridge is also popularly called Puente Triana, as you continue on towards the heart of Triana quarter. Here the bridge is based on the remains of the former San Jorge castle, which was the last headquarters of the Inquisición in Seville.

Santa Cruz church

sevilla
17th-18th
Religious architecture
Baroque
Santa Cruz church of Seville was originally located at the Plaza de Santa Cruz. It was destroyed by the French in 1811 and therefore moved to the former church of the Clérigos Regulares Menores del Espíritu Santo.
The building of the church started in 1665 in Baroque style. The church was completed in 1728.